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Gandhi and Ayurveda: -------------------------------- Even though Gandhiji had high regard on Ayurvedic medicines, he experimented with it many times in his life; had some adverse opinion on the ayurveda practioners;
He wrote, "Ayurvedic and unani physicians lack sanity and humility. I found in them a kind of arrogance... I don’t have much faith in Ayurveda.. Vaidhs do not master their subject...", citing the rude ways of certain Ayurvedic treatments.
Let the Vaidhs shun the irreligion of the western scientists, which, in order to heal the body and in the name of science, subjects the lower animal kingdom to the hideous tortures which pass muster under the name of vivisection. Some will retort that there is warrant for vivisection in Ayurveda. If there is, I am sorry...? No warrant even in the four vedas can sanctify sacrilege." (From the letter to Vallabhram Vaidya, June 28, 1942)
As far as the use of Animal parts in Ayurvedic medicines, Gandhi had no specific remarks. Ayurveda is to prevent disease, but not for curing it, he comprehended.
While everyone is moving towards the world language English, there arises a necessity to promote national languages (Hindi and provincial languages)
A common language for a nation is very important for its existence, identity and to speak its heritage. As India has too many widely speaking languages, the question of which one of them would rule as a national language arises. Since Hindi is vastly majority spoken language, indisputably it becomes the national language. Non-Hindi speaking provinces must have its 'representative'-ness along with this 'one nation, one language' policy. That's why we have around 20 languages 'declared as national languages' officially.
We must also look at the difference between the 'common language' and 'national language'. As far as I understand, in today's India, English remains to be a common language; Hindi and other declared languages as national languages. With the notion of mobilization of people across the country for trade, education, work and other business purposes, the choice of language is left with the people, not the law.
The language crisis in India takes two different shapes; one in the government offices and in official formats. The other in the public form. In Indian democracy public wants to empower the government which creates further chaos in the administration of languages. A government document cannot be in all the 20 national languages. But a public can speak in all vernaculars.
And finally, provincial patriotism is the key for any state or province to show its acceptance of Hindi as national language. If that is diminishing, Hindi's status as national language is at stake at the state level. So, it is up to the state to manage both Hindi and provincial patriotism.
I am answering to your second query. First one, later.
Here are few statements from Gandhi:
Gandhiji believed that the medium of foreign language in higher education has imparted in India 'has caused incalculable intellectual and moral injury to the nation''. In his own school days' experience, learning English was a difficult feat for him. But his love of English did not concede as he went on later to write columns in Harijan.
India has to flourish in her own climate and scenery and her own literature, even though all the three may be inferior to the English climate, scenery and literature. We and our children must build on our own heritage. If we borrow another, we impoverish our own.
(Selections from Gandhi, 261-66)
Without a common language no nation can come into being. Instead of worrying himself with the controversy about Hindi-Hindustani and Urdu, the village worker will acquire a knowledge of the rashtrabhasha which should be such as can be understood by both Hindus and Muslims.
Our infatuation for English has made us unfaithful to provincial languages. If only as penance for this unfaithfulness the village worker should cultivate in the villagers a love of their won speech.
He will have equal regard for tall the other languages of India, and will learn the languages of the part where he may be working, and thus be able to inspire the villagers there with a regard for their own speech.
The first and greatest Social Service we can render is to revert our vernaculars, to restore Hindi to its natural place as the National Language and begin carrying on all our provincial proceedings in our respective vernaculars and national proceedings in Hindi. We ought not to rest till our schools and colleges give us instruction when our legislature will debate national affairs in the vernaculars or Hindi as the case may be. (From the presidential address to the First All India Social Service Conference held at Calcutta on 27th December, 1917.)
The proceedings of the provincial legislature must be in the language, or even the languages of the province where a province has more than one language within its borders. I suggest to the legislators that they could, by enough application, inside of a month, understand the languages of their provinces. There is nothing to prevent a Tamilian from easily learning the simple grammar and a few hundred words of Telugu, Malayalam, and Kanarese all allied to a Tamil. At the centre Hindustani must rule supreme. (Harijan, 9-7-‘38)
Provincial Patriotism is good where it feeds the larger stream of all-India patriotism, as the latter is good to the extent that it serves the still larger end of the universe. But a provincial patriotism that says “India is nothing, Gujarat is all”, is wickedness (Young India, 27-8-‘25)
Let us see what should be the requirements of a national language:
1. It should be easy to learn for Government officials.
2. It should be capable of serving as a medium of religious, economic and political
intercourse throughout India.
3. It should be the speech of the majority of the inhabitants of India.
4. It should be easy to learn for the whole of the country.
5. In choosing this language considerations of temporary or passing interest should
not count. (From Gandhiji’s presidential address at the Second Gujarat Educational Conference held on 20th October, 1917.)