GandhiTopia

Mahatma Gandhi Community Forum

Gender and Development Studies, IGNOU publications

 School of Gender and Development Studies (SOGADS),

                    Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU),

                                  Maidan Garhi, New Delhi, 110068

has published in 2012,

 6 books on "Gender and Development: Concepts, Approaches and Strategies" MGS-001,

      1. Concepts of Gender and Development
2. Approaches to Gender and Development,
3. Strategies and GAD
4. Gender Mainstreaming in Policy Making
5. Gender and Market Economies
6. Gender, Work, Health

·  4 books on “Gender, Development, Goals and Praxis” MGS-002

1. Development: Facets and Issues

2. Government and Voluntary Sector

3. Formulating Gender-Sensitive Development Goals

4. Development with Social Justice

·  3 books on “Gender Analysis” MGS-003

1. Gender Analysis: An Introduction

2. Tools of Gender Analysis

3. Gender Analysis in Development Process

 For copies of these books, please contact:

ü  "Delhi-Dr. Annu Thomas Director SOGADS IGNOU" <jacob.annu@gmail.com>, " <annu_thomas@hotmail.com>,

Phone: 011-29532964                                   

ü  Delhi-Dr. Vanishree Josephn IGNOU School of GADS" <vanishree@ignou.ac.in>,

ü  "Delhi-Dr. G Uma IGNOU School of GADS" <guma@ignou.ac.in>,

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Comment by Prof. Vibhuti Patel on October 29, 2012 at 19:54
• Reading List for Women’s Studies

• Agarwal, Beena (1986), Cold Hearths and Barren Slopes; The Wood Fuel Crisis in the Third World, Allied Publishers, Delhi.

• Agarwal, Beena (1994), A Field of One’s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

• Agnihotri, Satish B. (2000), Sex ratio in Indian Population: A Fresh Exploration, Sage publications, New Delhi.

• Baud, I.S.A. (1992), Forms of Production and Women’s Labour: Gender Aspects of Industrialization in India and Mexico, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

• Boserup, Esther (1970), Women’s Role in Economic Development, George Allen and Unwin, London.

• Custers, Peter (1997), Capital Accumulation and Women’s Labour in Asian Economies, Vistaar, New Delhi.


• Desai, Neera and Maithreyi Krishnaraj. (Eds.) (1979), Women and Society in India, Research Centre for Women Studies, SNDT University, Bombay.

• Desai, Neera Ed. 1988: A Decade of the Women’s Movement in India (New Delhi: Himalaya Publishing House, Delhi

• Engles, Fradrick (1985), The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, Progress Publications, Moscow.

• Gandhi, Nandita and Shah Nandita(1990) Issues at Stake, Kali for women, Delhi.

• Ghadially, Rehana Ed. (1988) Women in Indian Society: A Reader, Sage Publications, Delhi, 1988.
• Ghadially, Rehana Ed. (2007) Urban Women in Contemporary India, Sage Publications, Delhi.

• Government of India (1974), Towards Equality – Report of the Committee on the Status of Women in India, Department of Social Welfare, Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi.

• Gulati, S.C. (1988), Fertility in India: An Econometric Analysis of a Metropolis, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

• Gupta, J.A. (2000), New Reproductive Technologies, Women’s Health and Autonomy, Indo Dutch Studies on Development Alternatives, Sage Publication, New Delhi.

• Jain, Devaki and Nirmala Banerjee (1985), Tyranny of the Household, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi.

• Jhabwala, Renana and R.K. Subramanya (2000) (Eds), The Unorganized Sector: Work Security and Social Protection, Sage Publications, New Delhi.


• Krishnaraj, Maithreyi, R.M. Sudarshan and A. Shariff (1999), Gender, Population and Development, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.

• Kabeer, N. (1994), Reversed Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought, Kali for Women, New Delhi.

• Kabeer, N. and R. Subrahmanyam (Ed.) (1999), Institutions, Relations and Outcomes: A Framework and Case Studies for Gender Aware Planning, Kali for Women, New Delhi.

• Kalpagam, U. (1994), Labour and Gender: Survival in Urban India, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

• Mazumdar, Veena (1979). Symbols of Power: Studies on the Political Status of Women in India, Allied Delhi.

• MNRD, GOI (1987), Shram Shakhti: Report of the National Commission on Self – employed Women and Women Workers in the Informal Sector, Ministry of Human Resources Development, New Delhi.

• Mies, Maria (1986/1998), Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale: Women in the International Division of Labour, Zed books, London.

• Mishra S. (2000), Voluntary Action in Health and Population: The Dynamics of Social Transition, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

• Mitra, Ashok (1979), Implications of Declining Sex Ratio in India’s Population, Allied, New Delhi.

• Papola, T.S. and A.N. Sharma (Eds.) (1999), Gender and Employment in India, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi.

• Patel, Vibhuti (2002) Women’s Challenges of the New Millennium, Gyan Publications, Delhi.
• Patel, Vibhuti (2009) Discourse on Gender and Empowerment, The Woman Press, Delhi.
• Patel, Vibhuti (2010) Girls and Girlhoods at the Threshold of Youth and Gender, The Women Press, Delhi.
• Rege, Sharmila (2003) Sociology of Gender, The Challenge of Feminist Sociological Knowledge, Sage Publications, Delhi.
• Rege, Sharmila(2006) Writing Caste/Writing Gender: Narrating Testimonios of Dalit Women, Zuban, New Delhi, 2006
• Sen, A.K. (1990), ‘Gender and cooperative Conflicts’ in Tinker (Ed), Persistent Inequalities: Women and World Development, Oxford University Press, New York.

• Sen. Gita and Karen Brown (1985/1987), Development, Crises and Alternate Visions, Monthly Review Press, New York.
• Seth, Meera (2000), Women and Development: The Indian Experience, Sage Publications, New Delhi.
• Srinivasan K. and A. Shroff (1998), India: Towards Population and Development Goals, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.

• Venkateswaran, S. (1995), Environment, Development and Gender Gap; Sage Publications, New Delhi.

• Wazir, R, (2000), The Gender Gap in Basic Education: NGOs as change Agents, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

• Young, K., et. al. (Eds.) (1987), Serving Two Masters, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.
Comment by Prof. Vibhuti Patel on October 29, 2012 at 19:49
Module on Gender Mainstreaming

Origin of the gender mainstreaming strategy

In efforts to promote the advancement of women and gender equality over the past few decades the approaches or strategies adopted have changed significantly. Initial efforts were focused on separate targeted activities for women. While many of these efforts produced positive results, particularly for the limited numbers of women who could benefit directly, this approach did not tackle the structural constraints to gender equality. Efforts in the 1970s shifted instead to integrating attention to women into all activities rather than keeping women on the sidelines of development. However the gains made through the integration strategy were limited by the fact that most efforts were undertaken too late in processes when all important decisions on goals, strategies and resources had already been taken. Equally constraining was the fact that integration was often taken to mean only increasing women’s participation in development agendas already decided upon by others without taking their contributions, knowledge, priorities and needs into consideration-add gender and stir. The potential for bringing about the types of structural changes required for achieving gender equality was therefore reduced.

In the 1980s a new approach evolved, the mainstreaming strategy, which aimed to make the goal of gender equality central to all development activities. The term mainstreaming came from the objective to bring attention to gender equality into the mainstream of development activities. An important element in the mainstreaming strategy is the ambition to give attention to gender equality from initial stages of processes so that there is potential to influence goals, strategies and resource allocations and thus bring about real changes in policies, programmes and other activities and make a real difference to gender equality.

The ECOSOC Agreed Conclusions 1997/2 provided a clear definition of the mainstreaming strategy as: “…the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality.”

The mainstreaming strategy is utilized in areas where the principal objective is not promotion of gender equality but promotion of other goals, such as, poverty elimination, environmentally sustainable development, health development, peace support operations or economic development. Mainstreaming involves taking up gender equality perspectives as relevant in analysis, data collection, and other activities, to ensure that all processes take into account the contributions, priorities and needs of the entire stakeholder group, women as well as men. Attention to the goal of gender equality needs to be mainstreamed into research, analysis, policy development as well as operational activities.

The Platform for Action (Beijing Conference, 1995) made it very clear that gender analysis is the first essential step in the mainstreaming strategy. Before any decisions are taken in any area of societal development an analysis should be made of the current responsibilities and contributions of both women and men and the potential impact of planned processes and activities on women and men respectively.

Mainstreaming does not replace the need for targeted, women-specific policies and programmes, and positive legislation. Mainstreaming and empowerment of women are complementary strategies. The mainstreaming strategy should always be implemented in a manner which facilitates empowerment of women.

Process of gender mainstreaming

The first step required is an assessment of the linkages between gender equality and the issue or sector being worked on, that is, to identify the gender implications of working on, for example, environment, poverty elimination, health development, and all other areas of development. This involves understanding why promotion of gender equality is important for securing human rights / social justice for both women and men, as well as for achievement of development goals. Secondly the opportunities for introducing gender perspectives need to be identified in the work tasks undertaken. These opportunities or entry-points can be found in research and analysis, policy development, use of statistics, training events and workshops/conferences, as well as in planning and implementing projects and programmes. Thirdly an approach or methodology has to be identified for successfully incorporating gender perspectives into these work tasks in a manner which facilitates influencing goals, strategies, resource allocation and outcomes. This could include, for example, giving attention to gender perspectives and the goal of gender equality in terms or reference and job descriptions. Institutional development, in terms of developing guidelines, utilizing gender specialists, providing competence development for all personnel, etc., is also required to support gender mainstreaming.

References:

Naila Kabeer (2008) Mainstreaming Gender in Social Protection for Informal Economy, Commonwealth Secretariat, London.

Moser, Carolyn (1993) Gender Planning and Development, Routledge, London.

Smita Mishra Panda (Ed.) Engendering Governance, Sage Publications, 2008

www.unifem.com
Comment by Prof. Vibhuti Patel on October 29, 2012 at 19:49
Module on Gender Issues in Work, Employment and Productivity

• Concept and analysis of women’s work;
• Valuation of production and unproductive work;
• visible and invisible work; paid and unpaid work;
• economically productive and socially productive work – economic status, private property,
• and participation of women in pre-industrial and industrial societies
• Women’s contribution to National Income
• Factors affecting female entry in labour markets;
• Supply and demand for female labour in developed and developing countries, particularly India;
• Studies of female work participation in agriculture ,
• Non-agricultural rural activities, informal sector, cottage and small scale industries, organized industry, and services sector;
• Wage differentials in female activities;
• Determinants of Wage differentials; gender, education, skill productivity, efficiency, opportunity ;
• Structures of wages across regions and economic sectors.
References:
Baud, I.S.A. (1992), Forms of Production and Women’s Labour: Gender Aspects of Industrialization in India and Mexico, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

Custers, P. (1997), Capital Accumulation and Women’s Labour in Asian Economies, Vistaar, New Delhi.

Ghadially, Rehana (2007) Urban Women in Contemporary India, Sage Publications, Delhi.

Kalpagam, U. (1994), Labour and Gender: Survival in Urban India, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

King M. and M.A. Hill (Eds.) (1993), Women’s Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits and Politics, John Hopkins, Baltimore.

Loutfi, Martha Fetherrolf (Ed) (2002) Women, Gender and Work, International Labour Organisation, Rawat Publications, Jaipur and Delhi

MNRD, GOI (1987), Shram Shakti: Report of the National Commission on Self – employed Women and Women Workers in the Informal Sector, Ministry of Human Resources Development, New Delhi.
Papola, T.S. And A.N. Sharma (Eds.) (1999), Gender and Employment in India, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi.

Schultz. T.P. (1988), ‘Education Investment and Returns’ in Chenery, H.B. and T.N. Srinivasan, The Handbook of Development Economies, North Holland, New York.

Sardamoni, K. (ed.) (1992) Finding the Household- Conceptual and Methodological Issues, Sage Publications, London.
Comment by Prof. Vibhuti Patel on October 29, 2012 at 19:48
Module on Gender Issues in Resources and Entitlements

In most societies, women have historically managed the unpaid care economy and fulfilled the responsibilities of cooking, cleaning, family care, collection of fuel, fodder, water, kitchen gardening, poultry and animal husbandry and provided food and nutritional security. As women’s contribution to the economy and society at large remains unrecognised, largely underpaid and mostly unpaid, the need for women to be able to secure land and property has become even more critical.
Similar to the cross-cutting nature of women’s human rights issues gender issues in resources and entitlements intersect with other problems such as discriminatory inheritance patterns, disinheritance thro’ wills, agriculture and development issues, use of forest-based resources, gender-based violence, the appropriation and privatization of communal and indigenous lands, as well as gendered control over economic resources and the right to work.

• Factors affecting decision making by women: property right, access to and control over economic resources/assets;
• Women’s rights to Land and Housing
• Power of decision making at household, class, community level;
• Economic status of women, Strategic & Practical Needs of Women and their effects on work-participation rate, income level, health, and education in developing countries and India;
• Role of kinship in allocating domestic and social resources.
• Affirmative Action by the State-Protective, promotive and welfare services

References:
-Empowerment Engendered, All India Institute of Local self Government, Mumbai, 2007.
-Nussbaum, Martha C. and Amartya Sen (Eds) (1999) The Quality of life, Oxford University Press, Mumbai.
-National Perspective Plan for Women, Government of India, 1988
-Shramshakti Report, Government of India, 1988
Comment by Prof. Vibhuti Patel on October 29, 2012 at 19:47
Module on Gender Issues in Financial Inclusion

• Gender and redistributive dimensions of resources and wealth and plural financial inclusion strategies
• Banking, Affordable Credit, Insurance-Financial services-savings, short and long term credit, mortgages, insurance, pensions, remittances and leasing, Venture capital model
• Role of Grameen banks/ SHGs /NGO' s in achieving the goal of financial inclusion, Transformation of NGOs into MFIs, Strategic Alliance of MFIs with Financial Markets, Supportive infrastructure, Community and Social Mobilisations
• The linkage between financial literacy and financial inclusion
• Reaching out to the bottom of the pyramid
• Lenders and Borrowers, Credit, debt, repayment, Savings, Investments
• Nature the efforts required to educate the masses
• Finance and Business Development-Economies of Scale, proper funding mechanism,
• Financial Inclusion for Sustainable Development
• Reaching the Unreached- Markets excluded by gender and remoteness
• Role of corporate sector for Financial Inclusion of Women
• Policy initiatives taken by the government for affirmative and targeted anti-poverty programme
• Subsidies –Differential Rate of interest (DRI) Loans
• Technology for Financial Inclusion-Business correspondent (BC) Model, Smart Cards, Biometric Devices, Mobile Banking
• State Agencies as Regulators

References:

Smita Mishra Panda (Ed.) Engendering Governance Institutions, Sage Publications, 2008

Kamdar, Sangita (ed.) (2007) Micro Finance, Self Employment and Poverty Alleviation, Mumbai: Himalaya Publishing House.

Vibhuti Patel & Manisha Karne (Ed.s) Macro Economic Policies and the Millennium
Development Goals, Delhi: Gyan Publications, 2007.
Comment by Prof. Vibhuti Patel on October 29, 2012 at 19:47
Module on Gender Audit and Gender Budgeting

Gender budgeting is gaining increasing acceptance as a tool for engendering macro economic policy-making. It is not a separate budget for women; rather it is a dissection of the government budget to establish its gender-differential impacts and to translate gender commitments into budgetary commitments. The main objective of a gender-sensitive budget is to improve the analysis of incidence of budgets, attain more effective targeting of public expenditure and offset any undesirable gender-specific consequences of previous budgetary measures. Budget impacts women’s lives in several ways. It directly promotes women’s development through allocation of budgetary funds for women’s programmes and reduces opportunities for empowerment of women through budgetary cuts.
Gender audit of budgets provides policy framework, methodology and set of tools to assist governments to integrate a gender perspective into the budget as the main national plan of public expenditure. It also aims to facilitate attention to gender analysis in review of macroeconomic performance, ministerial budget preparations, parliamentary debate, and mainstream media coverage. It does not mean separate budgets for women but all budgets (union, state and PRI) analysed and constructed from a gender perspective, analysis of revenue and government expenditure on women and girls as compared to men and boys. Gender audit of budgets help governments to decide how policies need to be adjusted and reprioritised for protecting and promoting women’s rights.


• Genesis of Gender Budgeting-Global Scenario
• Indian Initiative- Towards Equality Report (1974), National Perspective Plan for Women (1988), HDR (2002)
• Donor Driven Agenda, Pressure from Women Elected Representatives in PRIs
• Paradigm shift in Five Year Plans-Shifts in Approaches from the I five year plan (1950) to the 10th five year plan-From “Women as beneficiaries of welfare” to “Women as active economic agents for growth”-
• Special Allocation for women in the planned development- Women’s component in the Plan expenditure-
• Strategies, policies and programmes for economic empowerment of women in the planning process-
• Gender audit of the budgets by the Union and the state governments- Allocation of economic resources to the local self-government bodies.
• Gender Budgeting

References:

Kiran Prasad (ed.) Communication and Empowerment of Women-Strategies and Policy Insights from India, Vol. I & II, The woman Press, Delhi, 2004.

Smita Mishra Panda (Ed.) Engendering Governance, Sage Publications, 2008

www.unifem.com
Comment by Prof. Vibhuti Patel on October 29, 2012 at 19:46
Module on Gender Analysis

Gender analysis refers to the variety of methods used to understand the relationships between men and women, their access to resources, their activities, and the constraints they face relative to each other. Gender analysis provides information that recognizes that gender, and its relationship with race, ethnicity, culture, class, age, disability, and/or other status, is important in understanding the different patterns of involvement, behaviour and activities that women and men have in economic, social and legal structures.

Gender analysis is an essential element of socio-economic analysis. A comprehensive socio-economic analysis would take into account gender relations, as gender is a factor in all social and economic relations. An analysis of gender relations provides information on the different conditions that women and men face, and the different effects that policies and programs may have on them because of their situations. Such information can inform and improve policies and programs, and is essential in ensuring that the different needs of both women and men are met.

At the local level, gender analysis makes visible the varied roles women, men, girls and boys play in the family, in the community, and in economic, legal and political structures. A gender perspective focuses on the reasons for the current division of responsibilities and benefits and their effect on the distribution of rewards and incentives.

• What is gender analysis?
• Importance of gender analysis
• Elements of gender analysis
• Tools of gender analysis
• Gender analysis in development process
• Gender analysis in research, to problem definition, policy making, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

References:

Boserup, Esther (1978) Women’s Role in Economic Development, George Allen and Unwin Limited, London, U.K.

Moser, Carolyn (1993) Gender Planning and Development, Routledge, London.

Kabeer, N. (1994), Reversed Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought, Kali for Women, New Delhi.

Kabeer, N. and R. Subrahmanyam (Ed.) (1999), Institutions, Relations and Outcomes: A Framework and Case Studies for Gender Aware Planning, Kali for Women, New Delhi.

www.unifem.com
Comment by Prof. Vibhuti Patel on October 29, 2012 at 19:44

DRAFT SYLLABUS U.G. Course on Gender & Development Module I: Status of Women (15 lectures) Introduction- Socio-economic manifestations of subordination of women-Construction of gender in the economy, civil society and the state- Demographic Profile- Health & Nutrition, Educational needs- Political Participation of Women- Female headed households. Module II: Contribution of Women in Economic Development (10 Lectures) Work participation of women in the Indian Economy (1872-2001)-Gender and caste based division of labour in the economy-Women dominated occupation-Visibility of Women in Statistics and Indicators- Marginalisation of women in the economy. Module III: Approaches to Women’s Development (10 lectures): Women in Development WID- Women and Development(WAD): From Marginalisation to Integration –Gender and Development(GAD)-Development Alternatives with Women-Gender Development Index (GDI) & Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)-Impact of economic development on opportunities for women in India-Women in Decision Making. Module IV: Women and Work (10 lectures) Women in the labour force- Industrial classification of work-force participation of women-Women in the organized and unorganized sector-self employment –Women in the public and private sectors- Sexual harassment at workplace as an occupational health hazards- Module V: Invisibility of Women’s Household Work (15 lectures) Paid and unpaid nature of women’s household work in primary sector- Expenditure saving activities of unpaid family workers- Home-based production in manufacturing sector- Self employed home-based women workers-Out-sourcing/ putting out work and Women’s predicament. Module VI: Gender-based Market Segmentation (GMS) in the Economy (15 lectures) Factors responsible for GMS-Discrimination in the family and work life-Inequality of opportunities-Limited scope in the Private life-Restriction on Mobility in the Public Life-Myths about women’s abilities, efficiency and productivity-Impact of patriarchal ideology of female subordination on Women’s Work and Remuneration. Module VII: Gender Implications of Macro-economic Policies: (5 lectures) Government policies towards women’s work and economic empowerment-Anti-poverty programmes- Impact of economic globalisation and structural adjustment programmes on women- Feminisation of poverty and stabilization policies. References: *Human Development Report, Planning Commission of India, GoI, Delhi, 2005. *Dreze, Jean and Amartya Sen: Economic Development and Social Opportunities, Oxford University Press, 2002. *National Perspective Plan for Women, Department of Women and Child Development, Government of India, 1988. *Shramshakti Report, Committee on Self Employed women and Women in the Unorganised Sector, Government of India, 1988. *Towards Equality, Committee on Status of women in India, Government of India, New Delhi, 2001.

Comment by Prof. Vibhuti Patel on October 29, 2012 at 19:42

ECONOMICS OF GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT M.A. I & II

 

PREAMBLE

 

Gender biases in societal practices and development policies have resulted in persistent gender inequalities, it is increasingly being realized that mitigating such inequalities and enhancing women’s capabilities and entitlements are crucial to the overall development of the country.  This course “Economics of Gender and Development” would provide students an understanding of the nature of the economic role of women and their contribution to the national economy on the basis of a scientific and non-sexist analysis.  The modules incorporated in this course provide an analysis of issues at the theoretical level and also with regard to specificity of issues prevailing in the Indian context

 

P.G. Course on GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT

 

Unit 1:  Introduction to Gender Studies

 

Importance and concepts of women studies – Women in patriarchal and matriarchal societies and structures, patrilineal and matrilineal systems and relevance to present day society in India; Economic basis and functioning of patriarchy in development and LDCs, particularly India; Gender bias in the theories of value, distribution, and population.

 

Unit 2:  Demographic Aspects

 

Demography of female population;  Age structure, mortality rates, and sex ratio – Causes of declining sex ratios and fertility rates in LDCs and particularly India – Theories and measurement of fertility and its control; Women and their access to nutrition, health , education, and social and community resources, and their impact on female mortality and fertility , economic status, and in work participation rate.

 

Unit 3:  Women in Decision Making

 

Factor affecting decision making by women; property right, access to and control over economic resources, assets; Power of decision making at household, class, community level;  Economic status of women, Strategic & Practical Needs of Women and its effect on work-participation rate, income level, health, and education in developing countries and India; Role of kinship in allocating domestic and social resources.

 

Unit 4:  Conceptualization of Women’s Work

 

Concept and analysis of women’s work; Valuation of production and unproductive work; visible and invisible work; paid and unpaid work; economically productive and socially productive work – economic status, private property, and participation of women in pre-industrial and industrial societies – Female contribution to National Income.

 

Unit 5:  Women and Labour Markets

 

Factors affecting female entry in labour markets; Supply and demand for female labour in developed and developing countries, particularly India; Studies of female work participation in agriculture , Non-agricultural rural activities, informal sector, cottage and small scale industries, organized industry, and services sector; Wage differentials in female activities; Determinants of Wage differentials; gender, education, skill productivity, efficiency, opportunity ; Structures of wages across regions and economic sectors.

 

Unit 6:  Women, Technology and Environment

 

Impact of technological development and modernization on women’s work participation in general and in various sectors such as agriculture, non-agriculture rural activities, small and cottage industries and organized industry – Female activities and ecological and environmental concerns; the two way relationship – Role of new technologies for  helping women – Provision of information and training for simple harvesting of economics services.

 

Unit 7:  Social Security and Social Protection for Women

 

Social security of women, entitlements, ensuring economic independence and risk coverage, access to credit and insurance markets;  Role of voluntary organizations, self help groups in providing social security; Labour market biases and gender discrimination; effectiveness of collective bargaining; Review of legislation for women’s entitlements, protection of property right, social security – Schemes for safety net for women; Need for female labour unions; affirmative action for women and improvement in their economic and social status.

 

Unit 8:  Gender Planning, Developing Policies and Government

 

Gender and development indices; Mainstreaming gender into development policies; Gender planning techniques; Gender sensitive governance; Paradigm shifts from women’s well being to women’s empowerment; Democratic decentralization (Panchayats) and women’s empowerment in India.

 

BASIC READING LIST

 

  • Boserup E. (1970), Women’s Role in Economic Development, George Allen and Unwin, London.

 

  • Desai, N. and M.K. Raj. (Eds.) (1979), Women and Society in India, Research Centre for Women Studies, SNDT University, Bombay.

 

  • Government of India (1974), Towards Equality – Report of the Committee on the Status of Women in India, Department of Social Welfare, Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi.

 

  • Krishnaraj, M., R.M. Sudarshan and A. Shariff (1999), Gender, Population and Development, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.

 

  • Patel, Vibhuti (2002) Women’s Challenges of the New Millennium, Gyan Publications, Delhi.

 

  • Seth, M. (2000), Women and Development:  The Indian Experience, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

 

  • Srinivasan K. and A. Shroff (1998), India:  Towards Population and Development Goats, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.

 

  • Venkateswaran, S. (1995), Environment, Development and Gender Gap; Sage Publications, New Delhi.

 

  • Wazir, R, (2000), The Gender Gap in Basic Education: NGOs as change Agents, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

 

 

ADDITIONAL READING LIST

 

Unit 1

 

  • Kabeer, N. (1994), Reversed Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought, Kali for Women, New Delhi.

 

  • Kabeer, N. and R. Subrahmanyam (Ed.) (1999), Institutions, Relations and Outcomes: A Framework and Case Studies for Gender Aware Planning, Kali for Women, New Delhi.

 

  • Mies, M. (1986/1998), Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale: Women in the International Division of Labour, Zed books, London.

 

  • Sen. G. and K. Brown (1985/1987), Development, Crises and Alternate Visions, Monthly Review Press, New York.

 

Unit 2

 

  • Agnihotri, S.B. (2000), Sex ratio in Indian Population: A Fresh Exploration, Sage publications, New Delhi.

 

  • Gulati, S.C. (1988), Fertility in India: An Econometric Analysis of a Metropolis, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

 

  • Gupta, J.A. (2000), New Reproductive Technologies, Women’s Health and Autonomy, Indo Dutch Studies on Development Alternatives, Sage Publication, New Delhi.

 

  • Mishra S. (2000), Voluntary Action in Health and Population: The Dynamics of Social Transition, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

 

  • Mitra, A. (1979), Implications of Declining Sex Ratio in India’s Population, Allied, New Delhi.

 

  • Patel, Vibhuti (Ed. ) 2010 Girls and Girlhoods at the Threshold of Youth and Gender, The Women Publication, Delhi.

 

  • Srinivasan, K. (1998), Basic Demographic Techniques and Applications, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

 

  • Young, K., et. al. (Eds.) (1987), Serving Two Masters, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.
 
Unit 3

 

  • Agarwal, B. (1994), A Field of One’s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

 

  • Dwyer, D. and J. Bruce (Eds.) (1988), A Home Divided: Women and Income in the Third World, Standford University Press, Stanford.

 

  • Evans, H. and C. Ungerson, (Eds.) (1983), Sexual Divisions, Patterns and Processes, Tavistock, London.

 

  • Kabeer, N. (1994), Reversed Realities:  Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought, Kali for Women, New Delhi.

 

  • Redcliff, N. and E. Mingione, (Eds.), (1985), Beyond Employment: Household, Gender and Subsistence, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

 

  • Sen, A.K. (1990), ‘Gender and cooperative Conflicts’ in Tinker (Ed), Persistent Inequalities: Women and World Development, Oxford University Press, New York.

 

Unit 4

 

  • Amsden, A.H. (Ed.) (1980), The Economics of Women and Work, Penguin, Harmondsworth.

 

  • Engles, F. (1985), The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, Progress Publications, Moscow.

 

  • ILO (1978), Women’s Participation in the Economic Activity of Asian Countries, ILO, Geneva.

 

  • Jain, D. and N. Banerjee (1985), Tyranny of the Household, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi.

 

  • Kuhn, A. and A.N. Wolpe (Eds.), (1978) Feminism and Materialism, Rutledge and Kegan Paul, London.

 

  • Papola, T.S. and A.N. Sharma (Eds.) (1999), Gender and Employment in India, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi.

 

  • Patel, Vibhuti (ED.) (2009) Discourse on Women and Empowerment, The Women Press, Delhi.

 

 

Unit 5

 

  • Baud, I.S.A. (1992), Forms of Production and Women’s Labour:  Gender Aspects of Industrialization in India and Mexico, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

 

  • Custers, P. (1997), Capital Accumulation and Women’s Labour in Asian Economies, Vistaar, New Delhi.

 

  • Kalpagam, U. (1994), Labour and Gender: Survival in Urban India, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

 

  • King M. and M.A. Hill (Eds.) (1993), Women’s Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits and Politics, John Hopkins, Baltimore.

 

  • MNRD, GOI (1987), Shram Shakhty: Report of the National Commission on Self – employed Women and Women Workers in the Informal Sector, Ministry of Human Resources Development, New Delhi.

 

  • Papola, T.S. And A.N. Sharma (Eds.) (1999), Gender and Employment in India, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi.

 

  • Schultz. T.P. (1988), ‘Education Investment and Returns’ in Chenery, H.B. and T.N. Srinivasan, The Handbook of Development Economies, North Holland, New York.

 

Unit 6

 

  • Agarwal, B. (1986), Cold Hearths and Barren Slopes; The Wood Fuel Crisis in the Third World, Allied Publishers, Delhi.

 

  • Ahmed, I. (Ed.) (1985), Technology and Rural Women:  Conceptual and Empirical Issues, George Allen & Unwin, London.

 

  • International Rice Research Institute (1983), Women in Rice Farming Systems, I.R.R.E. Press, Manila.

 

Unit 7

 

  • Agarwal, B. (1994), A Field of One’s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

 

  • Dantwala, M.L., H. Sethi and P. Visaria (1998), Social Change through Voluntary Action, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

 

  • Jhabwala, R. and R.K. Subramanya (2000) (Eds), The Unorganized Sector:  Work Security and Social Protection, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

 

Unit 8

 

  • Buvinic M. and M.A. Lycette (1989), ‘Women, Poverty and Development in the Third World’ in Lewis J.P. (Ed.), Strengthening the Poor: What Have We Learnt, OECD.

 

  • Carr, M., C. Martha and R. Jhabvala (Eds.) (1997). Speaking Out: Women’s Economic Empowerment in South Asia, Vistaar Publications, New Delhi.

 

  • Kabeer, N. and R. Subrahmaniam (Eds.) (1999), Institutions, Relations and Outcomes, Kali for Women, New Delhi.

 

  • Mazumdar, V. (1979). Symbols of Power: Studies on the Political Status of Women in India, Allied Delhi.

 

  • Narasimhan, S. (1999), Empowering Women: An Alternative Strategy from Rural India, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

 

  • Patel, Vibhuti (2002) Women’s Challenges of the New Millennium, Gyan Publicatons, Delhi.

 

  • Patel, Vibhuti and Manisha Karne (2006) The Macro Economic Policies and the Millennium Development Goals, Gyan Publications, Delhi.

 

  • Purushothaman, S. (1998). The Empowernment of Women in India: Grassroots Women’s Networks and the State, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comment by Prof. Vibhuti Patel on October 29, 2012 at 19:38

M.Phil. in Gender and Development Preamble: This paper provides theoretical understanding and analytical tools to examine Gender dynamics in the process of development. It clarifies the concepts, terminologies and indicators used in Gender and Development discourse. It provides plural perspective on gender aware approaches and analysis by different schools of thought. It makes a critical evaluation of the conventional indicators of development and seeks development alternatives that promote economic empowerment of women. It enables the student to evolve a vision that facilitates the process of gender planning and policy making. 1. Theories of Gender Economics (20 lectures) Exploitation versus oppression- Economic status of women in different structures and systems- Gender based division of labour in pre-industrial and industrial societies- Economic status of women and private property- Patrilineal and matrilineal systems and society-Economic status of women in different socio-economic structures and systems- women’s access and control over economic resources- Power and decision-making at the household, community and state level-Human Capital and discrimination Theories. 2. Women and Development (20 lectures) Conventional indicators of development- Approaches to women’s development-WID, WAD, GAD - Gender blindness and gender biases in development thinking, DAWN, Women and human development, Gender Development index, Gender Empowerment Measure- Technology and Women- Women and Environment- Economic Impact of Ecological Imbalances- Social security of women- Women and Property rights 3. Concept of Work (15 lectures) Productive and Unproductive work- Visible and invisible work- Unpaid, underpaid and paid work- Methods of Computing women’s work- Valuation of women’s work-Measurement of women’s work, Women in poverty groups-Concept of Head of the household-Female Headed households-Visibility of women in statistics and indicators-Time Allocation Studies-Women in the Data System- Demand and supply factors affecting WPR of women- FWPR differentials across and within regions, sectors, rural-urban areas. 4. Employment of Women (15 lectures) Women in the labour force and work force- Relation between economic status and work participation rate of women-Occupational trends and patterns in the highly industrialised and subsistence economies- Characteristics and structures of labour markets- Women’s labour supply functions-Factors affecting women’s labour demand functions-Gender based Segmentation in the labour, factor and product markets- Wage differentials in various economic systems-Trends and Patterns-Basis of wage differentials with respect to gender, education, skill, productivity, efficiency and opportunity- U shaped curve of women’s work profile in the economy at different stages of economic development . 5. Demographic, Nutrition and Health Profile of Women (15 lecture) Missing women- Gender based differentials in mortality, declining sex ratio-Magnitude, trends, regional variations and determinants of Deficit of Women, Women and migration, Gender Analysis of demographic and Epidemiological transition in India-Female mortality, morbidity- Fertility rates and life expectancy, Gender implications of population policy, Intra-household distribution of food-resources and Nutritional Needs of Women- Energy expenditure and nutritional deficiency-Health Delivery System and Women, Efficiency and Equity- Women and Health Security. 6. Economics of Women’s Education (15 lectures) Approaches to women’s Education- Human Capital Formation- Human Resource Development- Capacity Building-Formal and Non-formal Education of women-Distance Education- Education, Employment and Productivity of women- Cost-Benefit Analysis, Economic Efficiency, Social Equity and Distributional Aspects: A Gender Analysis-Vocationalisation of Education, Skill up-gradation in Women dominated Industries. References: 1.Boserup, Esther (1978) Women’s Role in Economic Development, George Allen and Unwin Limited, London, U.K. (Module-2) 2. Dewan, Ritu (1995) “Gender in Neo-classical Economics”, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XXX, No. 17, April 19. (Module-1) 4. Elson, Diana (1999) “Labour Markets as Gendered Institutions: Equality, Efficiency and Empowerment”, World Development, Vol.27, No.3, U.K. (Module 4) 4. Gopalan, Sarala and Shiva Mira (2001) Health Profile of Women in India, WHO & VHAI, Delhi. (Module-5) 5. Haq, Mahabub Ul (2000) Report on Human Development in South Asia- A Gender Question, OUP, Mumbai. (Module-2) 6. Jaffery, Roger and Basu, Alaka(Ed) (1996) Girls’ schooling, Women’s autonomy and fertility Change in South Asia, sage Publications, New Delhi. (Module-6) 7.Krishnaraj, Maithreyi (1988) Women and Development, SNDT Women’s University, Mumbai. (Module-2) 8. Loutfi, Martha Fetherrolf (Ed) (2002) Women, Gender and Work, International Labour Organisation, Rawat Publications, Jaipur and Delhi. (Module-3) 9. Moser, Carolyn (1993) Gender Planning and Development, Routledge, London. (Module-1) 10. Nussabaum, Martha C. and Amartya Sen (Eds) (1999) The Quality of life, Oxford University Press, Mumbai. (Module-1) 11. Patel, Vibhuti (2002) Women’s Challenges of the New Millennium, Gyan Publications, Delhi. 12. Polity Press (2002) The Polity Reader in Women’s Studies, OUP, Oxford. (Module-4) 13. Sardamoni, K. (ed.) (1992) Finding the Household- Conceptual and Methodological Issues, Sage Publications, London. 14. Scott, Alison Mac Even (ed.0 (1994) Gender Segregation and Social Change- Men and Women in Changing labour Markets, Oxford University Press, U.K. (Module-4) 15. Sinith, Sittirak (1998) The Daughters of Development- Women in Changing Environment, Zed Books, London & New York. (Module 4) 16. Tinker, Irene (1990) Persistent Inequalities, Oxford University Press, Oxford, U. K. (Module 5 & 6) Paper II – Women and Development- A Global Perspective Preamble: Main thrust of this paper is to gauge women’s development profile in different countries through cross country analysis and inter-sectoral comparisons. It examines women’s predicament in the macro-economic framework and connects it with meso and micro economic realities. It aims to give a gendered analysis of women in industry and agriculture. It also provides an analysis of statutory provisions and labour legislations affecting working women. It provides a comprehensive treatment to gender audit of budget, new economic policy, stabilisation measures and structural Adjustment Programmes on women. 1. Macro-economic Policies and Women in Development, women and development and Gender and Development (WID-WAD-GAD) (20 Lectures) Women in the National Accounts System-Gendered Analysis of Crisis in Welfare State – Structural Adjustment Programmes and Women- Safety Nets to deal with economic crisis-Micro credits and Self Help Groups-Impact of Economic Globalisation on women- New International Division of Labour and Feminisation of Poverty-Flexible labour market, Trans-national and Multinational corporations- Special Economic Zones, Free Trade Zones and Export Processing Zones-Implications of Information, Communication and Entertainment (ICE) policy on women. 2. Women in Industry (15 Lectures) Changing profile of women in Industry- Organised and Unorganised sectors- Self employed and informal sector women workers- Women entrepreneurs in different economic strata- Women in management- - Nature and Impact of technological development and modernisation on women’s employment- Occupational health and safety- Rationalisation, Mechanisation, Automation, Computerisation- Occupational diversification- Unemployment, underemployment and disguised unemployment- Women’s response to the Trade Union movements- Role of women in collective bargaining. 3. Women in Agriculture and Allied Activities (20 Lectures) Subsistence economy and women, Cash nexus and women-Women as cultivators and agricultural labourers- Agricultural mechanisation and women-Women in fisheries, horticulture, Seri-culture, flori-culture-Impact of agricultural modernisation (HIV, improved inputs, irrigation, mechanisation) on FWPR, Women’s relationship with land and water resources-Economic Liberalisation and women cultivators- Gender Implications of Land reforms- Land Rights of women. 4. Women and Environment (15 lectures) Science, technology, environment and women- Predicaments of women in the context of ecological changes- women’s role in collection of fuel, fodder and water in the subsistence economy-Women’s access and control over agrarian economic resources-Nature and Impact of Technological development and modernisation on Women’s Economic status- Problems of environmentally displaced women and their entitlements-Women and Housing. 5. Women’s Component Plan and Gender Budget (15 Lectures) Paradigm shift in Five Year Plans-Shifts in Approaches from the I five year plan (1950) to the 10th five year plan-From “Women as beneficiaries of welfare” to “Women as active economic agents for growth”-Special allocation for women in the planned development- Women’s component in the Plan expenditure- Strategies, policies and programmes for economic empowerment of women in the planning process- Gender audit of the budgets by the Union and the state governments- Allocation of economic resources to the local self-government bodies. 6. Statutory Provisions for Women: Labour Legislations and women- Workmen’s Compensation Act (1932), The Minimum Wages Act (1948), The Factories Act (1948), Plantation Labour Act (1951), Maternity Benefits Act (1961), The Contract Labour Act (1970), Bonded Labour Act (1976), Equal Remuneration Act (1976), Migration Workers’ Act (1976), Child Labour (Prevention & Regulation) Act (1986), Legal Services Act (1987), Bidi & Cigar Workers Act (1996), Directive of The Supreme Court of India on Sexual Harassment at Workplace (1997)- Recommendations of II Labour Commission (2001). References 1. Agarwal, Bina (1994) A Field of One’s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. (Module 3) 2. Banerjee, Nirmala (1992) Indian women in a changing Industrial Scenario, Sage Publications, New Delhi. (Module 2) 3. Kalpagam, U (1994) Labour and Gender: Survival in Urban India, Sage Publications, New Delhi. (Module 2) 4. Mitter Swasti and Rowbotham Sheila (ed.) (1995) Women Encounter Technology- Changing Patterns of Employment in the Third World, UNUINTEC, UNU Press and Routledge, London and New York. (Module 3 & 4) 5. Munch, Ronaldo (2000) Globalisation and Labour, Madhyam Books, Delhi. (Module 1) 6. National Perspective Plan for Women, 1988-2000 (1988), Department of Women and Child Development, Government of India. (Module 1) 7. Patel, Krishna- Ahooja (1995) Women and Sustainable development- An International Dimension, Asian Publications, Delhi. (Module 1). 8. Patel, Vibhuti and Manisha Karne (Ed.) Macro Economic Policies and the Millennium Development Goals, Gyan Publications, Delhi. 9. Shramshakti (1989) Government of India, Department of Labour, Delhi. 10. Sen Gita and Grown, Karen (1987) Development Alternatives with Women, Monthly Review Press, U.S.A (Module 1). 12. Sharma, Ursula (1980) Women, Work and property in Northwest India, Tavistock Publications, London. (Module 3) 13. Singh, Andrea Menefee and Kelles, Vitanen, Anita (ed.s) (1987) Invisible Hands- Women in Home-based Production, Sage Publications, London. (Module 3) 14. World Bank (1995) Special issue on Gender, Adjustment and Macro-economic Policies, World Development, Vol. 23, No. 11, N.Y. (Module 1)

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